This is an essential and critical stage where building plans and designs are finalized, and professionals make sure that this phase is a well-planned construction schedule. The construction practices adhere to safety measures.
The strong foundation is essential for improving the safety and increasing the longevity of building structure. The strong foundation must undergo some useful checks:
- The soil must be tested before designing building’s foundation.
- The soil must be firm for resting the foundation, which must be taken to a minimum depth of 1.2m from the original ground level.
- The foundation area must be significant to safely transfer the load to the ground on which it rests.
- The foundation area can be calculated by the soil’s load carrying capacity, it is essential to mark the location and size of the foundation before excavation.
Layout and Earth Work
The boundary lines are marked when preparing the layout to dig the foundation. One must follow the drawing to carry out layout and excavation work. Here are some useful tips below:
- Execute a proper survey to get the layout plan
- Mark all trench excavation lines with respect to the walls’ centreline.
- Make sure the excavation is carried out true to levels, slope, pattern and shape.
- The excavation bed must be consolidated by watering and ramming. Lean concrete must be filled by digging out the soft or defective earth.
- Brace the excavation sides with tight soaring work for deep excavation to prevent the collapse of excavation area sides.
The building structure becomes weak and wooden material gets damage with termite infestation. In order to keep home termites free, follow these useful tips:
- The soil surrounding foundation area must pass through a treatment up to the plinth level with suitable chemicals
- There must be complete and continuous chemical barrier.
- Treatment can be performed pre, during and post construction stages.
- Care must be taken to make sure that the chemicals must not contaminate the domestic water sources.
This temporary structure is supportive to the construction during the progress of concrete work and till to develop desired concrete strength before releasing the same.
- The formwork designed and constructed must be rigid enough at the time of placing and compaction of concrete, and leak-proof to prevent slurry loss from the concrete.
- Make use of releasing agent to smoothly finish the concrete.
- The formwork must be cleaned before the casting.
The proper ratio of concrete mix is important, and mix must be used within 30 minutes of the preparation time. This blend must be prepared in mixer machine. One must take care of the water ratio, as use of more water will make the concrete weak and enhance the cracking potential. Vertical vibrator is used for compaction. At a height of 1.5 meters maximum, the concrete mix is poured to prevent any aggregates separation. When placing concrete, take care that proper leveling and slope of the roof are maintained to prevent accumulation of water on the roof.
The safe buildings are because of well-built, strong and sturdy walls. Here are some tips:
- Bricks/Blocks must be laid on a full bed of properly mixed mortar.
- The joints must be filled and packed with the mortar of the same mix.
- The vertical joint must be done staggered.
- To carry out the block work, L/H ratio must be properly maintained and RCC band with stool columns, etc., need to be provided according to the IS code.
- The brickwork must be cured to make it stronger.
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Work is carried out by measuring a few steps that comprises
Batching, Mixing & Placing:
Wooden box of specific size must be used for easy batching and maintain a proper ratio of materials. Mixer machine must be used for better results. The concrete mix must be placed within half an hour after preparation. The workability is obtained by using water. Addition water will weaken the concrete and increase the cracking potential. Proper compaction is possible by using vibrator vertically. Over vibration of concrete must be avoided. During compaction, water must not be added. From maximum height of 1.5 meters, the concrete should be poured to avoid any separation of aggregators. When placing concrete, proper leveling and the slope of the roof must be maintained to prevent accumulation of water on the roof.
Curing is the process of maintaining moisture in the concrete, it is when the concrete hardens and gets the strength. As the concrete quickly begins to dry, curing must start within 12-15 hours from the time it is casted. The parts exposed to the environment must be cured before they dry. Curing is a continuous process as per the stipulated time as mentioned in BIS codes. Proper curing time for concrete beams and slabs is 14 – 21 days. Curing must be done by pond formation for flat surfaces, such as roofs and floors. Once the shuttering of columns is removed, the columns must be wrapped with used jute bags which must be kept wet by intermittent sparkling of water at least for three to four times in a day, for two to three weeks.
It is an essential component in Reinforced Cement Concrete. It is essential to select the right steel and place it right to avoid cracking or any damage to the R.C.C. members.
Here are some useful tips:
- In the entire structure, same grade and quality TMT bar must be used.
- Bar bending schedule must be maintained in advance before TMT bar cutting and bending to minimize the wastage
- Use concrete cover blocks of same strength of concrete at regular intervals
- Position reinforcement bars properly and these must be tightly fixed
- To join the bar to adequate lap, laps must be staggered, and length must be maintained
Critical parameters to judge reinforcement bars:
- Lesser impurities
- Can be bend (during fabrication)
- Easily bond with concrete
- Requisite tensile strength
- Physical properties consistency across the length of the bars
- Adequate ductility
Benefits of Modern Steel Mills L.L.C. Fe 500D TMT
- Higher tensile strength, yield strength across the full length (much above the required strength according to the IS 1786:2008)
- Higher Ductility (much above the requirement)
- Customers are given technical service
- Produced from iron ore have higher purity and lower impurities of phosphorus and sulfur content, that makes it
- stronger than any other comparable make in the range of Fe 500D
Masonry joints and all exposed surfaces are protected from external environment by plastering, It also binds together all bricks or stones to provide lateral stability to a wall.
Making your house waterproof must be your priority to safeguard your precious construction. During and after construction, several waterproofing techniques can be followed.